My New Book: Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution

I am pleased to announce the publication of my new book entitled Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution: Essays on Faith, Freedom, and Decolonization. You can order your copy at CreateSpace or Amazon.

Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution: Essays on Faith, Freedom, and Decolonization

Book Description

Publication Date:December 27, 2012
Race, Religion, and The Haitian Revolution explores the intersections of history, race, religion, decolonization, and revolutionary freedom leading to the founding of the postcolonial state, the Caribbean nation of Haiti, in 1804. Particular attention is given to the place of religion in this freedom story. The book not only examines the multiple legacies and the problem of Enlightenment modernity, imperial colonialism, Western racism and hegemony, but also studies their complex relationships with the institution of slavery, religion, and Black freedom. This present work is a collection of five interdisciplinary essays, which underscore the role of faith in Black Atlantic discourse and Haitian thought in shaping the lives of the people in the Black Diaspora and the Haitian people in particular. Topics range from Makandal’s Postcolonial religious imagination to Boukman’s Liberation Theology, Langston Hughes’ discussion of the role of prophetic religion in the Haitian Revolution to Frederick Douglass’ critiques of Christianity as a “slave religion;” the text also brings in conversation Du Bois’s theory of double consciousness with Fanon’s theory of decolonization and revolutionary humanism.

About the Author

Celucien L. Joseph, Ph.D. (University of Texas at Dallas) is an adjunct Professor of English Language and Literature at Palm Beach State College. Professor Joseph is an interdisciplinary scholar, researcher, and educator; his work is interdisciplinary and intersectional with an emancipative intent. He is interested in the intersections of history, race, religion, literature, cultural identity, and freedom. He is the author of two forthcoming books, Religious Métissage: The Religious Imagination and ideas of Jean Price-Mars (Wipf & Stock, 2013) and Faith, Secular Humanism, and Social Development: Jacques Roumain’s Engagements with Religion and Critical Theory (University Press of America, Inc., 2013). His academic research and teaching interests include the following: Transnational Literature; American and African-American Literature; African American Cultural and Intellectual History;Francophone Studies: Africa and the Caribbean; Anglophone Caribbean Literature; Comparative Afro-Caribbean Studies: History and Literature; Comparative Literature of the African Diaspora; Black Internationalism; Postcolonial and Critical Theory; Race and Religion; Religions in the Black Diaspora; Pragmatic Religious Naturalism; Liberation and Constructive Theologies.
Table of Contents

Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………v

 

Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………1

 

Chapter 1: An Appraisal of Recent Literary and Historiographical Works on

The Haitian Revolution…………………………………………………………………..10

 

PART I: RELIGION AND DECOLONIZATION: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RELIGION IN

THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION

 

Chapter 2: The Rhetoric of Prayer: Dutty Boukman, The Discourse of “Freedom from

Below,” and the Politics of God…………………………………………………………34

 

Chapter 3: Prophetic Religion, Violence, and Black Freedom: Reading Makandal’s Project of Black Liberation through A Fanonian postcolonial lens of decolonization and theory of revolutionary humanism……………………………………………………….56

 

PART II:  UNSETTLED FAITH OR RACE AND RELIGION: REPRESENTING AND

INTERPRETING THE   REVOLUTION IN BLACK ATLANTIC THOUGHT

Chapter 4: The Spirit of Revolution, the Spirit of Black Freedom: The Representation of the Haitian Revolution and The Function of Black Religion in Langston Hughes’ “Emperor of Haiti”……………………………………………………………..88

 

Chapter 5: “A City Upon a Hill”: Haiti, Religion, and Race:  Frederick Douglass’

Freedom Discourse and The Significance of The Haitian Revolution as a Freedom Event in Modernity……………………………………………………………..118

 

Notes……………………………………………………………………………………149

READING LIST: CRITICAL RACE THEORY

I want to share with you a reading list I put together on critical race theory.  This is not an exhaustive list, but it represents the most important scholarly works on the topic. Happy reading!

READING LIST:  CRITICAL RACE THEORY

Prepared by Celucien L. Joseph, Ph.D.

September 21, 2012

 

 

CRITICAL RACE THEORY

 

Appiah, Kwame Anthony. In My Father’s House: Africa in the Philosophy of Culture.

New York : Oxford Up, 1992.

 

__________________. Color Consciousness: The Political Morality of Race.

Princeton : Princeton UP, 1996.

 

Bay , Mia . The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White

People, 1830-1925. New York : Oxford University Press, 2000.

 

Baker, Houston A. Jr. Blues, Ideology, and Afro-American Literature: A Vernacular

Theory (1984)

 

Baker Lee D. From Savage to Negro: Anthropology and the Construction of Race, 1896-1954.

            Berkeley : California UP, 1998.

 

Banks, William M. Black Intellectuals: Race and Responsibility in American Life. New York :

            Norton, 1998.

 

Bell , D. Faces at the bottom of the well: The permanence of racism. New York :

Basic Books, 1992.

 

Carter, J. Kameron. Race: A Theological Account. New York : Oxford University

 Press, 2008.

Christian, Barbara.  “The Race for Theory.” Within the Circle.  Ed. Angela Mitchell. Durham : Duke University Press, 1994.

Crenshaw, Kimberlé. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the

Movement. New York : New Press: Distributed by W.W. Norton & Co., 1995.

 

Dain, Bruce. Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early

Republic. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 2002.

 

Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefancic.Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. 2nd

ed. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1999.

 

_____________________________. Critical White Studies: Looking Behind the

Mirror.  Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1997.

 

_________________________.Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That

Formed the Movement; foreword, Cornel West; eds. Crenshaw, Gotanda, Peller, Thomas; New York : The New Press, 1995.

 

Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk.

 

Ellison, Ralph. Shadow and Act. New York : Random House, 1964.

 

Fanon, Frantz. Black Skin, White Masks (1956?)

 

Fredrickson, George M. Racism: A Short History. Princeton , NJ : Princeton

University Press, 2002.

 

________________. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American

Character and Destiny, 1817-1914.New York : Harper Touchbooks, 1971.

 

_______________. The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and

            Social Inequality. Middletown , Conn. : Wesleyan UP, 1988.

 

Gates, Henry Louis. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary

Criticism. New York : Oxford UP, 1988.

 

_____________. Figures In Black: Words, Signs, and the Racial Self. New York : Oxford

UP, 1987.

 

____________. “Race,” Writing, and Difference. Chicago and London : The University of

Chicago Press, 1985.

 

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., and Cornel West. The Future of Race. New York : Random House, 1997.

 

Goldberg, David Theo. Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning (2009)

 

_________________. The Racial State (2002)

 

__________________ Racial Subjects: Writing on Race in America (1997)

 

 

Gordon, Lewis R. Her Majesty’s Other Children: Sketches of Racism from a Neocolonial Age.

            Lanham , Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.

 

Gordon, Lewis Ricardo, and Renee T. White, eds. Black Texts and Textualities:

Constructing and De-Constructing Blackness. Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield, 1999.

 

Gilroy, Paul.  Against Race: Imagining Political Culture Beyond the Color Line.

Cambridge : Harvard UP, 2000.

 

__________. The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double-Consciousness. Cambridge :

Harvard University Press, 1993.

 

Gross, Ariela J. What Blood Won’t Tell: A History of Race on Trial in America.

Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 2008.

 

Guglielmo, J. Are Italians White?: How Race is Made in America. New York: Routledge,

2003.

 

Haller, John S. Outcasts from Evolution; Scientific Attitudes of Racial Inferiority, 1859-1900.

            Urbana : Illinois UP, 1971.

 

Hannaford, Ivan. Race: The History of an Idea in the West. Baltimore : The John Hopkins

UP, 1996.

 

Huemer, A.A. The Invention of “Race”: The Columbian Turn in Modern Consciousness. Lander,

            Wyo.: Agathon Books, 1998.

Hooks, Bell.  Outlaw Culture.  New York : Routledge, 1994.

_________.Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics.  Boston :   1990.

LaCapra, Dominick. The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance. Ithaca ,

            N.Y.: Cornell UP, 1991.

Lott, Tommy Lee. The Invention of Race: Black Culture and the Politics of Representation.

            Malden, Mass.: Blackwell, 1999.

Lipsitz, George. The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit

from Identity Politics. Philadelphia : Temple University Press, 1998.

 

Lott, Tommy L. The Idea of Race: Readings in Philosophy. Indianapolis/Cambridge:

Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. 2000.

 

Lubiano, Wahneema. The House That Race Built: Original Essays by Toni Morrison, Angela Y.

Davis, Cornel West, and Others on Bl ack Americans and Politics in America Today.

New York: Vintage Books, 1998.

 

Mills, Charles W. The Racial Contract. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1997.

 

Morrison, Toni. Playing in the Dark: Whiteness and the Literary Imagination.

Cambridge , Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1992.

Omi, Michael and Howard Winant. Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to

the 1990s. New York: Routledge, 1994.

 

Outlaw, Lucius. On Race and Philosophy .New York : Routledge, 1996.

 

Rabaka, Reiland. W.E. Bu Bois and the Problems of the Twenty-First Century: Essays

on African Critical Theory.  Lanham: Lexington Books, 2007.

 

____________. Africana Critical Theory: Reconstructing the Black Radical Tradition

from W. E. B. Du Bois and C.L.R. James to Frantz Fanon and Amilcar Cabral. Laham: Lexington Books, 2008.

 

Roediger, David R. How Race Survived U.S. History: From Settlement and Slavery

to the ObamaPhenomenon. New York: Verso Press, 2008.

 

Singh, Nikhil Pal. Black is a Country: Race and the Unfinished Struggle for

Democracy. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 2004.

 

Smith, Barbara. “Toward a Black Feminist Criticism” (1977)

 

West, Cornell. Race Matters. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.

 

___________. Prophesy Deliverance! Louisville:  Westminster John Knox Press,

2002.

__________. Keeping Faith: Philosophy and Race in America. New York: Routledge, 1993.

 

Wiegman, Robyn. American Anatomies: Theorizing Race and Gender. Durham, N.C.: Duke UP,

1995.

 

Williams, Patricia J. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard

University Press, 1991.

 

Williams, Joel. The Crucible of Race: Black—White Relations in the American South since

            Emancipation. New York: Oxford Up, 1984.

 

Williams, Vernon J., Jr.  Rethinking Race: Franz Boas and His Contemporaries. Lexington:

Kentucky Up, 1996.

 

Zack, Naomi. Race/Sex: Their Sameness, Difference and Interplay .New York: Routledge, 1997.

New Article for free

I am happy to inform you about  a new article of mine. You can acess the essay by clicking on the link below:

“Prophetic Religion, Violence, and Black Freedom: Reading Makandal’s Project of Black Liberation through A Fanonian postcolonial lens of decolonization and theory of revolutionary humanism,” Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion Volume 3, Issue 4 (August 2012):1-30 Free online access.

My review of Divine Discontent: The Religious Imagination of W.E.B. Du Bois

I am pleased to announce that my review of Divine Discontent: The Religious Imagination of W.E.B. Du Bois by Jonathan S. Kahn. Callaloo 35:2 (2012):537-541 is now published. You can read it in part here.

In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

Recent scholarship on W. E. B. Du Bois and religion has yet to develop a consensus; Du Bois’s biographers as well as historians of race and religion have expressed divergent opinions and described Du Bois’s religious sensibilities and ideas as skeptical agnostic (Lewis), agnostic (Aptheker), irreligious (Zuckerman), unreligious (Zamir), and antireligious (Jacoby). Other scholars have characterized Du Bois’s religious sentiments as superficial and even atheistic (Broderick, Rudwick). Prominent historian of African American studies, Herbert Aptheker, contends that “while Du Bois was an agnostic in his last years, he never was an atheist” (5). Du Bois’s biographer, Manning Marable, in his important article on the role of faith in Du Bois’s life argues that “Du Bois was simultaneously an agnostic and an Anglican, a staunch critic of religious dogma and a passionate convert to the black version of Christianity” (15).

More recently, the penetrating work of Edward J. Blum reevaluates these previous studies and clarifies the contours of Du Bois’s religious thought. As the first painstaking treatment of Du Bois’s engagements with faith and race, W.E.B. Du Bois: American Prophet reads Du Bois as a “Christian.” Blum situates the whole corpus of Du Bois’s work within radical Black Christianity and the greater American religious history. On one hand, Blum appropriately positions Du Bois in his rightful place—as a radical prophet, and alongside the most eminent American religious luminaries such as Jonathan Edwards, Reinhold Niebuhr, and Martin Luther King, Jr.—on the other hand, he remarks that “it seems that multiple religious selves existed within Du Bois” (6) and suggests that Du Bois was a “religious modernist” because of his inability to embrace the supernatural elements of the Christian Scripture (160). In other words, the religious commitment of the black leader is not monolithic or homogeneous, and ultimately cannot be defined. Consequently, the studies summarized above set the context to engage and appreciate Jonathon Kahn’s Divine Discontent: The Religious Imagination of W. E. B. Du Bois.1

Divine Discontent is an important and persuasive study on Du Bois’s interactions with religion. It departs from all of the previously stated arguments. Kahn brilliantly contends that Du Bois was an African American pragmatic religious naturalist whose religious rhetoric is rooted in the traditions of American pragmatic philosophy and pragmatic religious naturalism. Du Bois critically exploits both sources without supernatural commitments and equally drinks from the cisterns of black Christian sources in order to craft a new expression of pragmatic religious naturalism that is black. The author judges that Du Bois’s religious sensibilities and ideas are outside of normative Christianity. The Kahnian logic directly interrogates Manning’s and Blum’s affirmation that Du Bois was a “Christian.” As he reasons, “Du Bois seems Christian but only to a point; as not only a ready user of the language of divinity and the Bible but also a deep skeptic of supernatural truths, he is both suspicious of ecclesiastical convention and institutions and sympathetic to the African religious tradition” (7). Consider another statement he makes: “His [Du Bois’s] heterodoxy runs too deep, and throughout his life he chafed against the label ‘Christian’” (9).

As a social critic, Du Bois deploys religious vocabularies to address the realities of race and the exigencies of black life in America as well as religious modalities as an ideological tool fundamental to his race and cultural politics. As Kahn posits, “Du Bois uses religion to fashion a sense of black peoplehood central to his conception of black American identity. Religion enables Du Bois to bind black people—through hope, love, and at times reprimand.” In the introduction, Kahn articulates Du Bois’s religious imagination and highlights three interconnected religious virtues underpinning his religious discourse: piety, jeremiadic protest, and sacrifice (12). He develops these propositions coherently in the subsequent chapters.

Chapter 1, “What is Pragmatic Religious Naturalism, and What Does it Have to Do with Du Bois?” explores the…

Que dire d’être Noir dans la « république » de Pétion-Ville ?

Que dire d’être Noir dans la « république » de Pétion-Ville ?

Nicole Siméon

Ce n’est pas une nouvelle, en Haïti le noir est soit sale, soit diabolique. C’est surtout lié, dans un contexte socio-économique comme le nôtre, à « ces gens-là », ceux qui sont pauvres et analphabètes. Pour prendre leurs distances avec le noir de leur peau, des jeunes gens subissant la pression sociale, n’hésitent pas à utiliser des produits pour « se blanchir » et paraître plus beaux, au détriment même de leur santé. Pourtant l’exercice- si elle devait s’appliquer à la majorité- serait de taille : près de 98% des habitants de ce pays sont … NOIRS !

parmi eux, MOI. Je suis une Négresse et je n’ai pas de raisons particulières de m’en mortifier et surtout je ne peux rien y changer. Raison de plus pour ne pas porter l’opprobre de ma couleur. C’est aux racistes de mon propre pays de rougir.

La discrimination contre une personne noire dont je fais les frais quand je visite un magasin de la rue Louverture ou au supermarché de la Rue Ogé à Pétion-ville annonce-t-elle l’établissement – dans un proche avenir – d’un ordre nouveau ? Y a-t-il quelque chose que les Noirs de ce pays doivent craindre? Car subir le racisme à l’étranger, c’est une chose. Tout aussi inacceptable mais compréhensible. Mais le subir chez soi en est une tout autre.

C’est d’autant plus avilissant pour ceux qui sont derrière une telle violation qu’ils ont oublié qu’eux aussi sont « ces gens-là » ailleurs qu’en Haïti ou en Afrique. Alors, pourquoi reproduire des comportements qui les humilient et les réduisent, en dehors de toute rationalité,  au rang de parias, dans un pays qui les a accueillis, qui leur a donné une patrie et qui a fait leur fortune et leur bonheur ?

J’ai 37 ans, j’ai un bac +8 (diplômée en Linguistique, en Histoire  de l’Art et en Journalisme), j’habite à Pétion-Ville, je fais de la correspondance ponctuelle pour le plus grand quotidien de France. Depuis deux ans, j’occupe un poste de directrice régionale dans une organisation internationale qui fait notamment de la formation et de la production en journalisme et en communication sociale. J’ai des horaires de fous du lundi au dimanche, mais je gagne ma vie à la sueur de mon front. Donc, quand je franchis la porte d’un magasin ou d’un supermarché en citoyenne lembda, le bon sens voudrait qu’on me traite comme une cliente qui vient dépenser son argent, sans aucune discrimination relative à la couleur de ma peau.

Alors, je suis en droit de demander pourquoi quand je m’arrête à la fin d’une dure journée de travail pour faire mes courses, on me refuse l’accès à ces magasins sous le prétexte que je porte un sac à dos dans lequel se trouve mon ordinateur (Macbook dernier cri), mon appareil photo (Nikon D80), mon enregistreuse (Marantz) et autres bricoles que, pour rien au monde, je ne laisserai dans une voiture sur un parking même -dit- sécurisé à Port-au-Prince. S’il y a suspicion de vols à l’étalage, les mesures pour les contrer me paraîtraient plus que normales si elles concernaient Blancs et Noirs.

Donc, je ne vous cache pas ma colère quand -en vue d’organiser une petite fête d’anniversaire pour ma fille qui célèbre ses trois ans- je vais au  supermarché de la rue Ogé après le boulot pour échanger vite fait- fiche de caisse et reçu de carte de crédit en main- un produit défectueux. Déjà, le préposé aux casiers me tape sur l’épaule sur le pas de la porte et annonce la couleur : « Madame, ou dwe banm valiz ou « Je me tourne vers lui pour m’exécuter quand je vois passer devant moi une femme blanche qui m’a même un peu bousculée parce que, en fait, je bouche le passage. Distraitement, je la regarde alors investir les premiers rayons du magasin et que vois-je ? Elle porte, elle aussi, un sac à dos marque Jansport, comme le mien. Mais aux yeux de cet homme, la femme qui venait de passer était invisible ! Alors, je ramasse le peu d’énergie qui m’est restée de ma journée pour lui crier : Ou avèg ? Pou kisa ou pa pran valiz madanm sa a ki pase devan nou la ? » Il a dû se dire -à mon ton- qu’il ne fallait pas qu’il me cherche trop, parce qu’il me lance un inaudible « ok, ok, ale non ».  Fin de l’épisode.

Je rentre dans le supermarché et je me mets en quête d’un « superviseur »  comme me l’a recommandée une caissière à qui j’ai expliqué mon cas. Après vérification du produit et quelques doutes sur mon honnêteté, on me fait finalement passer à la caisse avec un « just come » – Philippin, me dit-on- le fameux superviseur, qui ne parle ni créole ni français, juste un anglais approximatif. N’ayant sans doute rien compris à ma requête, il me rend l’argent. Je lui explique alors que je ne suis pas là pour récupérer l’argent mais pour « échanger » le produit. Il me dit alors que je peux échanger le produit, mais que je dois d’abord sortir pour déposer mon sac dans les casiers à l’entrée. Je lui, rétorque qu’il n’en était pas question et que s’il veut m’accompagner au premier étage, libre à lui mais que je ne vais pas quitter le magasin pour revenir. Dédaigneusement, il fait signe à un jeune homme qui s’approche et lui demande de me mettre dehors. Comme pour narguer le hasard ou pour me confirmer que je suis victime d’un profilage racial, une femme- ai-je besoin de le préciser- une Blanche- passe avec un sac à dos. Je ne saurai dire si c’était la même ou pas, mais ça a fait un déclic en moi et, à partir de là, j’étais hors de moi.  Cinq minutes plus tard, je repartais, bouillonnante de colère, avec mon nouveau produit.

Ce n’était pas ma première expérience de ce genre. Au magasin de la rue Louverture, il y a quelque mois, c’était le même scénario. Le vigile m’a interdit l’entrée du magasin, parce que j’ai refusé de laisser mon sac -hors format des petits casiers disposés à cet effet- sur la table d’emballage où n’importe qui peut s’en emparer et partir avec. L’homme, armé, a littéralement braqué son fusil sur moi et, là c’est moi qui me suis dit qu’il ne fallait pas trop le chercher. Je lui ai proposé de me fouiller à l’entrée et à la sortie du magasin et j’entreprends de lui expliquer que ma naïveté m’a déjà coûté un appareil photo volé dans mon sac, mais il est resté sourd à ma demande. N’ayant aucune intention de me laisser faire, j’ai réclamé de parler à un « responsable » en disant que je suis une cliente et qu’ils n’ont pas le droit de me refuser l’accès au magasin alors que je les autorise, je leur demande même de me fouiller. J’insistais sous les yeux passifs de clients pénétrant et sortant du magasin, quand un type – un autre- est sorti du magasin pour me dire avec un regard insultant : « Nou di fi a li pa p antre nou fini ! Pou ki sa nou kanpe n ap pale avè l la ! ». Fin d’épisode. Je suis partie, en rage, sans les tissus de rideaux que mon amie Isabelle m’avait dit que je trouverais dans ce magasin.

 

Mais le pire, ce n’est pas l’incident en lui-même sur lequel j’ai pris de la hauteur en me disant que ces Haïtiens exécutent les ordres de leurs patrons et ne se rendent même pas compte de ce que cela impliquait pour leurs propres statuts aux yeux de ces mêmes personnes… le pire c’est de retrouver cette même amie  -Française, blonde aux yeux bleus- deux jours plus tard, qui m’avoue s’être toujours rendu à ce même magasin de la rue Louverture, avec tout son barda, et que jamais personne ne lui avait interdit l’accès. « Ma chère, appelons un chat un chat, tu as un problème de couleur. » Elle a raison. D’autres amis blancs m’ont confirmée qu’ils n’ont jamais été inquiétés avec leurs sacs encombrants.

 

Alors, je pose la question : Au nom de quel régime inégalitaire des commerçants osent pratiquer le profilage racial pour l’accès à un petit magasin? Ne devraient-ils pas de préférence investir dans des caméras de surveillance comme l’indiqueraient le bon sens,  la décence, le respect des personnes et, par la même occasion, le respect pour eux-mêmes ?

Ce raccourci facile qui voudrait que tous les Noirs entrant dans un magasin soient potentiellement des voleurs alors que les Blancs et les Arabes d’Haïti sont considérés comme des clients réglementaires est non seulement insultant pour ma personne, mais est aussi scandaleux et révoltant à l’échelle d’un pays de Noirs.

Le plus effrayant dans tout ça,  ce sont les Noirs préposés à administrer ces traitements dégradants à leurs compatriotes et obéissant dans l’abêtissement le plus total qui se prennent au jeu et se croient réellement supérieurs aux autres. Dépourvus de sens critique, ils ne pensent même pas à remettre en question leur propre situation ni le traitement qu’ils subissent eux-mêmes.

A l’heure ou en Europe ou en Amérique, on fait des pas immenses contre la discrimination, le racisme, le profilage racial, la xénophobie, voulons-nous vraiment perdre nos acquis et embrayer la marche arrière sur cette question aussi dans la première République noire du monde ?  À quand la ségrégation ?

•La discrimination est le fait de traiter de manière inégale et défavorable un ou plusieurs individus. De manière plus précise, il s’agit de distinguer un groupe social des autres en fonction de caractères extrinsèques (fortune, éducation, lieu d’habitation, etc.) ou intrinsèques (sexe, origine ethnique, etc.) afin de pouvoir lui appliquer un traitement spécifique, en général négatif. C’est l’acte de mettre de côté ou de distinguer une personne pour la couleur de sa peau, son genre, sa sexualité, sa religion, un handicap, etc..

Le profilage racial désigne toute action prise par une ou des personnes d’autorité à l’égard d’une personne ou d’un groupe de personnes, pour des raisons de sûreté, de sécurité ou de protection du public, qui repose tels que facteurs telles la race, la couleur, l’origine ethnique ou nationale ou la religion, sans motif réel ou soupçon raisonnable, et qui a pour effet d’exposer la personne à un examen ou à un traitement différentiel. Le profilage racial inclut aussi toute action de personnes en situation d’autorité qui appliquent une mesure de façon disproportionnée sur des segments de la population du fait, notamment, de leur appartenance raciale, ethnique ou nationale ou religieuse, réelle ou présumée.

Le racisme est une idéologie qui, partant du postulat de l’existence de races humaines, considère que certaines races sont intrinsèquement supérieures à d’autres. Cette idéologie peut entraîner une attitude d’hostilité, ou de sympathie systématique à l’égard d’une catégorie déterminée de personnes de couleurs. Dans le cas de l’hostilité ces actes se traduisent par une forme de xénophobie ou d’ethnocentrisme. Certaines formes d’expression du racisme, comme les injures racistes, la diffamation raciale, la discrimination négative, sont considérées comme des délits dans un certain nombre de pays. Les idéologies racistes ont servi de fondement à des doctrines politiques conduisant à pratiquer des discriminations raciales, des ségrégations ethniques et à commettre des injustices et des violences, allant jusqu’au génocide.

•La ségrégation raciale est une séparation organisée, de droit ou de fait, entre des groupes différenciés par la couleur de la peau, à l’intérieur d’un même pays. La séparation peut être physique avec des lieux interdits à certains groupes (restaurant, toilettes, école, cinéma, logement) ou prendre la forme de discrimination (à l’embauche, à la location, aux droits civiques).

La xénophobie est une hostilité systématique et irrationnelle à l’égard d’une ou de plusieurs personnes, essentiellement motivée par leur nationalité, leur culture, leur genre, leur religion, leur idéologie ou leur origine géographique; elle peut aussi être définie comme une « hostilité à ce qui est étranger ». La xénophobie peut se manifester par une attitude allant d’un simple préjugé défavorable à des actions violentes.

 

(Source : Internet)

Nicole Siméon

Free E-Books at Cornell University

I am happy to inform you  this morning I came across this wonderful Cornell University Free E-Books website which contains a number of books (about 39 texts)  you can read for free online. The list below  includes texts on religion, and race and ethnicity:

    1. The Woman’s Bible
      Stanton, Elizabeth Cady
      New York, European Publishing Company, 1895-189
    2. The Battle for God: A History of Fundamentalism
      Armstrong, Karen
      New York : Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.
    3. The History of God: the 4000-year quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
      Armstrong, Karen
      New York : A.A. Knopf : Distributed by Random House, 1993.
    4. Feminist spirituality and the feminine divine : an annotated bibliography
      Carson, Anne
      Trumansburg, N.Y. : Crossing Press, c1986
    5. Goddesses & wise women : the literature of feminist spirituality, 1980-1992, an annotated bibliography
      Carson, Anne
      Freedom, CA : Crossing Press, c1992
    6. The burned-over district : the social and intellectual history of enthusiastic religion in western New York, 1800-1850
      Cross, Whitney R.
      Ithaca ; London : Cornell University Press, 1982, c1950
    7. Skepticism, belief, and the modern : Maimonides to Nietzsche
      Botwinick, Aryeh
      Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1997.
    8. The heart of John Wesley’s Journal; with an introduction by Hugh Price Hughes, and an appreciation of the Journal by Augustine Birrell, ed. by Percy Livingstone Parker
      Welsey, John
      New York : Fleming H. Revell Co., [1903]
    9. Heaven and its wonders and hell : from things heard and seen
      Swedenborg, Emanuel
      London : J.M. Dent & Sons, Ltd. New York, E.P. Dutton & Co., [1911]
    10. The Book of Mormon; an account written by the hand of Mormon upon plates taken from the plates of Nephi. Translated by Joseph Smith, Jr.
      Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, c1921
    11. Woman’s Identity and the Qur’an: A New Reading
      Barazangi, Nimat Hafez
      Gainesville, Fl. : University Press of Florida, 2004
    12. A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology (Vol.1)
      White, Andrew Dickson
      New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1896
    13. A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology (Vol.2)
      White, Andrew Dickson
      New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1896
    14. Revivalism social conscience, and community in the Burned-over District : the trial of Rhoda Bement
      Altschuler, Glenn C. and Jan M. Saltzgaber
      Ithaca, N.Y. : Cornell University Press, 1983.
    15. The History of the Origins of Christianity
      Volume 1 – The Life of Jesus Read this book online (HTML) Volume 2 – The Apostles Read this book online (HTML) Volume 3 – Saint Paul Read this book online (HTML)

      Volume 4 – The AntiChrist Read this book online (HTML)

      Volume 5 – The Gospels Read this book online (HTML)

      Volume 6 – Comprising the Reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius (A.D. 117-161) Read this book online (HTML)

      Volume 7 – Marcus-Aurelius
      Read this book online (HTML)

    16. A translation of the treatise Chagigah from the Babylonian Talmud
      Streane, A. W. (Translator)
      Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1891.
    17. Les méditations de la vie du Christ. Traduites en fraçais par Henry de Riancey.
      Bonaventure, Saint
      Paris, J. de Gigord, 1914.

Race and Ethnicity

    1. American Dream in Black & White: the Clarence Thomas Hearings
      Jane Flax
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.
    2. Becoming American, Being Indian: an Immigrant Community in New York City
      Madhulika S. Khandelwal
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.
    3. Between Two Nations: The Political Predicament of Latinos in New York City
      Michael Jones-Correa
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.
    4. Caribbean New York: Black Immigrants and the Politics of Race
      Philip Kasinitz
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992.
    5. Cornell ’69: Liberalism and the Crisis of the American University
      Donald Alexander Downs
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.
    6. Discriminating Risk: the US Mortgage Lending Industry in the Twentieth Century
      Guy Stuart
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.
    7. Disowning Slavery: Gradual Emancipation and Race in New England, 1780-1860
      Joanne Pope Melish
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.
    8.  Fences and Neighbors: the Political Geography of Immigration Control Jeannette Money
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.
    9. Ethnic Politics
      Milton J. Esman
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994.
    10. Forging America: Ironworkers, Adventurers, and the Industrious Revolution
      John Bez�s-Selfa
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.
    11. Hispanas de Queens: Latino Panethnicity in a New York City Neighborhood
      Milagros Ricourt
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.
    12. I’m Not a Racist, but…: The Moral Quandary of Race
      Lawrence A. Blum
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002.
    13. No Fire Next Time: Black-Korean Conflicts and the Future of America’s Cities
      Patrick D. Joyce
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.
    14.  Old Labor and New Immigrants in American Political Development: Union, Party, and State, 1875-1920
      Gwendolyn Mink
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986.
    15. Race Against Empire: Black Americans and Anticolonialism, 1937-1957
      Penny M. Von Eschen
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.
    16. Racial Contract
      Charles W. Mills
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997.
    17. Racism and Justice: The Case for Affirmative Action
      Gertrude Ezorsky
      Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991 

BLack and White and Red All Over: Why Racial Justice Is a Gospel Issue by Russelll Moore

BLack and White and Red All Over: Why Racial Justice Is a Gospel Issue  by Russelll Moore

— Tuesday, June 12th, 2012 —

 

As I write this, news reports tell us that we just might see, by the time you read this, the election of the first African-American president of the Southern Baptist Convention. This is significant for all sorts of reasons: one being, of course, that the SBC was founded, partly, to protect the “right” of slaveholders to be missionaries. It’s important also because it’s a test for whether the SBC will go forward with the gospel and mission we say we believe.

One of my earliest memories is of a substitute Sunday school teacher in my Southern Baptist church chastening me for putting a coin in my mouth. “That’s filthy,” she said. “Why, you don’t know if a colored man might have held that.” It might just be my imagination playing tricks on me, but it seems as though she immediately followed this up with, “Alright children, let’s sing ‘Jesus Loves the Little Children, All the Children of the World.’”

Now, this lady probably didn’t consciously think of herself as a white supremacist. She almost certainly didn’t think of herself as subversive of the gospel itself. She never thought about the hypocrisy of holding the two contradictory worldviews together in her mind. She probably didn’t see how her dehumanizing of African-Americans was a twisted form of Darwinism rather than biblical Christianity.

She wasn’t alone.

On the question of civil rights in the American Christian context, there is little question that, with few exceptions, the “progressives” were right, often heroically right, and the “conservatives” were wrong, often satanically wrong. In the narrative of the dismantling of Jim Crow, conservatives were often the villains and progressives were most often on the side of the angels, indeed on the side of Jesus.

The question is not whether the progressives won the argument or whether they should have won the argument; the question is why they were persuasive, ultimately, on this point (and almost no other) to their more conservative brothers and sisters. The turnaround is striking, perhaps nowhere more clearly than in my denomination, the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC), where a generation ago most conservative leaders were segregationists.

Some, of course, will claim cynically that conservative evangelical leaders, like some national politicians, don’t play with racial demagogy anymore because such appeals don’t “work” anymore in 21st century America. Nobody wants to be seen as a racist. Well, okay, but, even if one accepts that argument, why is it true that a segregationist would be barred (and rightly so) from speaking at the SBC Pastors’ Conference of 2010 and wouldn’t be at the SBC Pastors’ Conference of 1950? Isn’t it because the people wouldn’t tolerate it? Well, why the change? It must be more than just changing American culture since conservative evangelicals have been in the throes of a much-hyped “culture war” on all sorts of issues since the 1960s?

Why is civil rights no longer a “culture war” issue? Why were the voices of the civil rights pioneers persuasive, not only to mainstream America but to conservative Christians as well? Some might argue it is because the culture has changed. But the culture has changed just as much (if not more so) on the question of gender and sexual issues, after three waves of feminism and a sexual revolution, but not so for traditionalist Catholics and confessional Protestants.

The reason SBC progressives, and the larger civil rights movement, were persuasive was because of the mode of their argument. The progressives, as scholar David Chappell shows in his book Stone of Hope: Prophetic Religion and the Death of Jim Crow, appealed to biblical orthodoxy and missionary zeal, in their arguments, not simply to the arc of historical progress.

This is true at the macro level (think of the King James Version of the Bible woven so intricately into the themes of Martin Luther King’s speeches and sermons). It is also true at the micro level. SBC civil rights advocates–from Foy Valentine to T.B. Maston to Henlee Barnette–argued from decidedly conservative biblical concepts.

The civil rights movement struggled on multiple fronts. In the political sphere, leaders such as King pointed out how the American system was inconsistent with Jeffersonian principles of the “self-evident” truth that “all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights.” Politically, Americans had to choose: be American (as defined in the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence) or be white supremacist; you can’t be both. King and his compatriots were right.

But the civil rights movement was, at core, also an ecclesial movement. King was, after all, “Rev. King” and many of those marching with him, singing before him, listening to him, were Christian clergy and laity. To the churches, especially the churches of the South, the civil rights pioneers sent a similar message to the one they sent to the governmental powers. You have to choose: be a Christian (as defined by the Scripture and the small “c” catholic apostolic tradition) or be a white supremacist; you can’t be both. They were right here too.

How can white supremacy be true, they would argue, if humanity is made from “one blood” in the creation of Adam? How can one segregate evangelistic crusades if the cross of Christ atones for all people, both white and black? If God personally regenerates repentant sinners, both white and black, how can we see people in terms of “race” rather than in terms of the person? If we send missionaries across the seas to evangelize Africa, how is it not hypocrisy not to admit African-Americans into church membership?

The biblical power of the argument is true, regardless of whether all the civil rights pioneers, in the SBC and out of it, believed in biblical orthodoxy.

Many did. See the faithful heroine Fannie Lou Hamer of Sunflower County, Mississippi, for example. If Baptists had a means of canonization, I’d support it for her. But regardless of personal faith, the civil rights heroes indicted conservative hypocrites, prophetically, with the conservatives’ own convictional claims. And, as Jesus promised, “My sheep hear my voice and they follow me.”

The arguments for racial reconciliation were persuasive, ultimately, to orthodox Christians because they appealed to a higher authority than the cultural captivity of white supremacy. These arguments appealed to the authority of Scripture and the historic Christian tradition.

This authority couldn’t easily be muted by a claim to a “different interpretation” because racial equality was built on premises conservatives already heartily endorsed: the universal love of God, the unity of the race in Adam, the Great Commission and the church as the household of God.

With this the case, the legitimacy of segregation crumbled just as the legitimacy of slavery had in the century before, and for precisely the same reasons. Segregation, like slavery, was shown to be what all human consciences already knew it to be: not just a political injustice or a social inequity (although certainly that) but also a sin against God and neighbor and a repudiation of the gospel. Regenerate hearts ultimately melted before such arguments because in them they heard the voice of their Christ, a voice they’d heard in the Scriptures themselves.

Conservative Christians, and especially Southern Baptists, must be careful to remember the ways in which our cultural anthropology perverted our soteriology and ecclesiology. It is to our shame that we ignored our own doctrines to advance something as clearly demonic as racial pride. And it is a shame that sometimes it took theological liberals to remind us of what we claimed to believe in an inerrant Bible, what we claimed to be doing in a Great Commission.

I’m thrilled about where God might be taking the SBC. A denomination formed to protect slavery led by a descendant of slaves, that’s just the kind of providential irony our God loves. Maybe it will prompt our denomination to stop seeing non-white people as opportunities for “ethnic ministry,” and prompt us to see there opportunities to find our leaders. Maybe seeing a non-white face with the gavel of the SBC might remind us that the Man we’ll see on the Judgment Seat, well, he isn’t a white guy either.

(Image Credit)

Note: This article originally appeared in the Summer issue of Southern Seminary Magazine. The full issue can be accessed here.
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