Extended Deadline: Call for Papers for Vodou: I Remember Anthology: Friday, May 30, 2014

Extended Deadline: Call for Papers for Vodou: I Remember Anthology: Friday, May 30, 2014.

Frantz Fanon marxiste ?

Originally posted on Parole En Archipel | Pour le partage du beau et du vrai:

Fondation Frantz Fanon

Les études postcoloniales (Homi Bhabha et  Edward Saiid) privilégient généralement chez Frantz Fanon les questions de construction de la personnalité et de l’identité noires. Elles font par là même de Frantz Fanon un théoricien du racisme plus apte à rapprocher race et sexe que race et classe. Le récent dossier de la revue Actuel Marx rejette ce ¨raccourci grossier et inexact¨ du psychiatre de formation. En examinant son rapport au marxisme, ce dossier montre la pertinence des problématiques de la domination de classe et du matérialisme dans sa philosophie. Les références constantes à Karl Marx dans ses ouvrages classiques, Peaux noires masques blancs, Damnés de la terre et Pour la révolution, sont aussi soulignées dans ce dossier qui s’est donné pour objectif de ¨relire Fanon comme le marxiste qu’il fut, et exhumer l’actualisation originale du marxisme qu’il a proposé¨. Considérant ces éléments,peut-on parler d’un marxisme de Frantz Fanon ?

La…

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Dominican Republic lawmakers pass citizenship bill

Originally posted on Repeating Islands:

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Slightly old news but extremely important! The Dominican senate has unanimously approved a bill to set up a system to grant citizenship to Dominican-born children of immigrants. President Danilo Medina had urged lawmakers to pass the bill swiftly to create “a country without exclusion and without discrimination.” The new law is not without detractors, since it will create different categories for people, depending on whether they have documents proving they were born in the Dominican Republic. This may still allow a wide loophole for discrimination.

The bill had already been approved by the lower house on Friday. It was proposed by the president after the country’s highest court ruled last year that the children of undocumented migrants were not automatically eligible for Dominican nationality. The ruling drew international criticism and soured relations with Haiti. The two countries share the island of Hispaniola and the overwhelming majority of undocumented migrants to…

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Anton Chekhov’s Uncle Vanya

“We must live our lives. Yes, we shall live, Uncle Vanya. We shall live through the long procession of days before us, and through the long evenings; we shall patiently bear the trials that fate imposes on us; we shall work for others without rest, both now and when we are old; and when our last hour comes we shall meet it humbly, and there, beyond the grave, we shall say that we have suffered and wept, that our life was bitter, and God will have pity on us. Ah, then dear, dear Uncle, we shall see that bright and beautiful life; we shall rejoice and look back upon our sorrow here; a tender smile–and–we shall rest. I have faith, Uncle, fervent, passionate faith. We shall rest. We shall hear the angels. We shall see heaven shining like a jewel. We shall see all evil and all our pain sink away in the great compassion that shall enfold the world. Our life will be as peaceful and tender and sweet as a caress. I have faith; I have faith.–Sonia, Act 1″ –Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), Russian physician, renowned short story author and playwright wrote Uncle Vanya (1899))

“Je connais un mot,” poème de René Depestre

Africa has no religion! Robert N. Bellah and The Silence of African Religion

You may call me a “complainer” or a “crying-baby,” if you will. I have to spit this thought out; If I don’t, I will miserably and unwillingly suffer an intellectual breakdown. Allow me to say a few words about Robert N. Bellah and the absence of African Religion in his magnum opus, Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age (Harvard University Press, 2011).

Briefly, Robert N Bellah (February 23, 1927 – July 30, 2013), the author of the influential work, “Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life ” (1985) was one of the most distinguished  sociologists of religion in the world, in the twenty-first century. He was internationally known for his rigorous and meticulous scholarship on religion, particularly on the sociological aspect  of religion in the United States; He was also an authority on Japanese  culture, history, and religion (See, Tokugawa Religion:The Cultural Roots of Modern Japan, 1985).

 

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I admire Bellah because of his intellectual breath, precision, and interdisciplinary mind. We need to celebrate his work and remember him for  his sensitive engagement and critical interaction with writers across disciplines and beyond the discipline of religious studies. To set the context for a short review of the book,  I would like to reproduce below  five important reviews about Bellah’s Religion in Human Evolution.

 

  • “This book is the opus magnum of the greatest living sociologist of religion. Nobody since Max Weber has produced such an erudite and systematic comparative world history of religion in its earlier phases. Robert Bellah opens new vistas for the interdisciplinary study of religion and for global inter-religious dialogue.” (Hans Joas, The University of Chicago and the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg)
  • “This is an extraordinarily rich book based on wide-ranging scholarship. It contains not just a host of individual studies, but is informed with a coherent and powerful theoretical structure. There is nothing like it in existence. Of course, it will be challenged. But it will bring the debate a great step forward, even for its detractors. And it will enable other scholars to build on its insights in further studies of religion past and present.” (Charles Taylor, author of A Secular Age and Dilemmas and Connections)
  • “Ever since Darwin, the theory of evolution has been considered the deadly enemy of religious belief; the creation of Adam and Eve and the process of natural selection simply do not go together. In Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age, the sociologist Robert Bellah offers a new, unexpected way of reconciling these opposites, using evolutionary psychology to argue that the invention of religious belief played a crucial role in the development of modern human beings.” (Barnes and Noble Review 2011-09-14)
  • “Of Bellah’s brilliance there can be no doubt. The sheer amount this man knows about religion is otherworldly… Bellah stands in the tradition of such stalwarts of the sociological imagination as Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. Only one word is appropriate to characterize this book’s subject as well as its substance, and that is “magisterial.” (Alan Wolfe New York Times Book Review 2011-10-02)
  • “One might best see this work as an attempt to do for the 21st century what the great sociologist of religion Max Weber did for the 20th in treating Judaism, China and India.” (Pheme Perkins America 2011-10-17)

 

In 2011, Harvard University Press released Bellah’s magnum opus, Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic from the Paleolithic to the Axial Age, a book of exceeding length: 746 pages to be exact. This project is quite ambitious but not comprehensive! Upon its release, I was very excited about this interdisciplinary and intelligent study and quickly purchased the hardcover at a ridiculous price.  In my opinion, imagining the future of religious scholarship, “Religion in Human Evolution” could/would have been the most important book on Religion in the Twenty-first century (I know this is an exaggeration since we’re still living in the 21st century) had the author not silenced the whole religious edifice and history of the people of an entire continent. Let me offer my single reason that justifies my position:  In his celebrated text,  Bellah has excluded  African religion (s) from the religious history of the people of the world; he has silenced the religious experiences and ideas of the African people and has not made any single reference to any religious tradition in Africa. Africa did not even make it to the Index nor did the Mother Land make it to the Contents of  Bellah’s book.

For example, Bellah has devoted substantial energy and stimulating thought and rigorous discussion to the development of religion and religious traditions in Ancient Israel, Ancient Greece, China in the Late First Millennium BCE, Ancient India. He also discussed the evolution from Tribal Religion  to Archaic Religion respectively. Here’s a sample breakdown :

 

  1. Religion and Reality (43 pages)
  2. Religion and Evolution (72 pages)
  3. Religion in Ancient Israel (58 pages)–No connection with African religion is underscored here.
  4. Religion in Ancient Greece (74 pages)—There is a strong connection between ancient Greece’s religion and religious ideas with ancient Egyptian religion and religious ideas. That is, Greece has borrowed some of its religious ideas from Africa!
  5. Religion in China in the Late First Millennium BCE (81 pages)–no connection with African religion is highlighted here!
  6. Religion in Ancient India  (85 pages)–No connection with African religion is mentioned!

In Bellah’s Religion in Human Evolution, African religion has been totally erased from the religious history of the people of the world. Interestingly, scientists have told us repeatedly that Africa is the birthplace of the first human being, and that over a long period of time, people had migrated from Africa to other geographical zones and continents with their cultures, traditions, and religions. Africa was also one of the first places in the world where human civilization began. Arguably, these sets of claims also presuppose that religion at some point in human history had an African beginning, and that Mother Africa was one of the first continents from which archeologists and anthropologists have learned tremendously about various religious traditions and practices, particularly the religious practices and spirituality of the African tribes–which are silent in Bellah’s treatment on Tribal and Archaic Religion. Bellah’s book was supposed to chronicle the “beginning” and “evolution” of religion and religious thought in human history and among various peoples in the world. As Hegel had claimed that Africa had produced no history, likewise Bellah has assumed that Africa has no religion.

 

Editorial Reviews from Amazon.com

Review

This book is the opus magnum of the greatest living sociologist of religion. Nobody since Max Weber has produced such an erudite and systematic comparative world history of religion in its earlier phases. Robert Bellah opens new vistas for the interdisciplinary study of religion and for global inter-religious dialogue. (Hans Joas, The University of Chicago and the Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg)This is an extraordinarily rich book based on wide-ranging scholarship. It contains not just a host of individual studies, but is informed with a coherent and powerful theoretical structure. There is nothing like it in existence. Of course, it will be challenged. But it will bring the debate a great step forward, even for its detractors. And it will enable other scholars to build on its insights in further studies of religion past and present. (Charles Taylor, author of A Secular Age and Dilemmas and Connections)Robert Bellah’s Religion in Human Evolution is the most important systematic and historical treatment of religion since Hegel, Durkheim, and Weber. It is a page-turner of a bildungsroman of the human spirit on a truly global scale, and should be on every educated person’s bookshelves. Bellah breathes new life into critical universal history by making ancient China and India indispensable parts of a grand narrative of human religious evolution. The generosity and breadth of his empathy and curiosity in humanity is on full display on every page. One will never see human history and our contemporary world the same after reading this magnificent book. (Yang Xiao, Kenyon College)This great book is the intellectual harvest of the rich academic life of a leading social theorist who has assimilated a vast range of biological, anthropological, and historical literature in the pursuit of a breathtaking project. Robert Bellah first searches for the roots of ritual and myth in the natural evolution of our species and then follows with the social evolution of religion up to the Axial Age. In the second part of his book, he succeeds in a unique comparison of the origins of the handful of surviving world-religions, including Greek philosophy. In this field I do not know of an equally ambitious and comprehensive study. (Jürgen Habermas)Religion in Human Evolution is a work of remarkable ambition and breadth. The wealth of reference which Robert Bellah calls upon in support of his argument is breath-taking, as is the daring of the argument itself. A marvellously stimulating book. (John Banville, novelist)Bellah’s reexamination of his own classic theory of religious evolution provides a treasure-chest of rich detail and sociological insight. The evolutionary story is not linear but full of twists and variations. The human capacity for religion begins in the earliest ritual gatherings involving emotion, music and dance, producing collective effervescence and shared narratives that give meaning to the utilitarian world. But ritual entwines with power and stratification, as chiefs vie with each other over the sheer length, expense, and impressiveness of ritual. Archaic kingdoms take a sinister turn with terroristic rituals such as human sacrifices exalting the power of god and ruler simultaneously. As societies become more complex and rulers acquire organization that relies more on administration and taxation than on sheer impressiveness and terror, religions move towards the axial breakthrough into more abstract, universal and self-reflexive concepts, elevating the religious sphere above worldly goods and power. Above all, the religions of the breakthrough become ethicized, turning against cruelty and inequality and creating the ideals that eventually will become those of more just and humane societies. Bellah deftly examines the major historical texts and weighs contemporary scholarship in presenting his encompassing vision. (Randall Collins, author of The Sociology of Philosophies: A Global Theory of Intellectual Change)In this magisterial effort, eminent sociologist of religion Bellah attempts nothing less than to show the ways that the evolution of certain capacities among humans provided the foundation for religion…[Readers] will be rewarded with a wealth of sparkling insights into the history of religion. (Publishers Weekly 2011-08-08)Bellah’s book is an interesting departure from the traditional separation of science and religion. He maintains that the evolving worldviews sought to unify rather than to divide people. Poignantly, it is upon these principles that both Western and Eastern modern societies are now based. What strikes the reader most powerfully is how the author connects cultural development and religion in an evolutionary context. He suggests that cultural evolution can be seen in mimetic, mythical, and theoretical contexts. (Brian Renvall Library Journal 2011-08-01)Religion in Human Evolution is not like so many other “science and religion” books, which tend to explain away belief as a smudge on a brain scan or an accident of early hominid social organization. It is, instead, a bold attempt to understand religion as part of the biggest big picture–life, the universe, and everything…One need not believe in intelligent design to look for embryonic traces of human behavior on the lower rungs of the evolutionary ladder. [Bellah's] attempt to do just that, with the help of recent research in zoology and anthropology, results in a menagerie of case studies that provide the book’s real innovation. Not only the chimps and monkeys evoked by the word “evolution” in the title, but wolves and birds and iguanas all pass through these pages. Within such a sundry cast, Bellah searches for a commonality that may give some indication of where and when the uniquely human activity of religion was born. What he finds is as intriguing as it is unexpected…Bellah is less concerned with whether religion is right or wrong, good or bad, perfume or mustard gas, than with understanding what it is and where it comes from, and in following the path toward that understanding, wherever it may lead…In a perfect world, the endless curiosity on display throughout Religion in Human Evolution would set the tone for all discussions of religion in the public square. (Peter Manseau Bookforum 2011-09-01)

Ever since Darwin, the theory of evolution has been considered the deadly enemy of religious belief; the creation of Adam and Eve and the process of natural selection simply do not go together. In Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age, the sociologist Robert Bellah offers a new, unexpected way of reconciling these opposites, using evolutionary psychology to argue that the invention of religious belief played a crucial role in the development of modern human beings. (Barnes and Noble Review 2011-09-14)

Of Bellah’s brilliance there can be no doubt. The sheer amount this man knows about religion is otherworldly… Bellah stands in the tradition of such stalwarts of the sociological imagination as Emile Durkheim and Max Weber. Only one word is appropriate to characterize this book’s subject as well as its substance, and that is “magisterial.” (Alan Wolfe New York Times Book Review 2011-10-02)

An audacious project…Religion in Human Evolution is no simple effort to “reconcile” religious belief with scientific understanding, but something far more interesting and ambitious. It seeks to take both religion and evolution seriously on their own terms, and to locate us within the stories they tell about the human condition in a way informed by the best emerging research on both terrains…The result is a grand narrative written in full understanding of the failures and limitations of recent grand narratives. Religion in Human Evolution is a magnum opus founded on careful research and immersed in the “reflective judgment” of one of our best thinkers and writers…This is a big book, full of big ideas that demand sustained attention and disciplined thought. But in my view it repays a reader’s effort in full…For over half a century, Robert N. Bellah has set his extraordinary mind out on the frontiers of human knowledge and has written back to make that knowledge accessible to the educated reader. This remarkable book finds him nearing the close of a long and fruitful life, and generously giving it back to us in love. (Richard L. Wood Commonweal 2011-10-21)

Religion in Human Evolution is a near-exhaustive examination of the biological and cultural origins of religion…Bellah gleefully plunges into the past, from the Big Bang to the first millennium B.C. in Israel, Greece, China, and India. For him, cosmology, cosmogony, mythology, ontogeny, and phylogeny all belong in the same chapter, or in some cases, the same paragraph, right alongside Hegel, Dawkins, and an astounding array of writers, scientists, sociologists, and philosophers. Although the tome stops short in the first millennium (leaving the last few thousand years for other scholars, or a future volume), its overall narrative does not feel incomplete. Expect to spend a long time reading this book–and expect to see the world differently when you finish. (Benjamin Soloway The Daily 2011-09-18)

One might best see this work as an attempt to do for the 21st century what the great sociologist of religion Max Weber did for the 20th in treating Judaism, China and India. (Pheme Perkins America 2011-10-17)

You can’t accuse Robert Bellah of thinking small. The University of California, Berkeley, sociologist set out to cover “from the Palaeolithic to the Axial Age” and he does. (The Axial Age ran from about 800 BC to 200 BC when the first major religions got going.) The result is a deeply thoughtful discussion of how evolution and religion went hand in hand, each influencing the other, from humanity’s earliest days. It’s like a chat with a great thinker who takes one engaging tangent after another. (Leigh Dayton The Australian 2011-11-26)

Religion in Human Evolution is an immensely ambitious book on a topic only a scholar of Robert Bellah’s stature could dare to tackle. It attempts no less than to explain human biological as well as cultural evolution in one sweep, beginning with early hominids and ending with the “axial age.” Bellah engages evolutionary biology as well as cognitive psychology for the framing of his argument. This is a courageous move of transcending conventional disciplinary boundaries, for which he should be applauded…With Religion in Human Evolution Robert Bellah has given us a marvelous book written with the wisdom of age as well as youthful enthusiasm. Having discovered the importance of play in human evolution rather late in the writing process, Bellah nevertheless must have internalized it much earlier. All these rich chapters on ancient Israel, Greece, China, and India convey a certain playfulness and intellectual joy, which carry his narrative often beyond the needs of his argument, but stimulate and enrich the reader immensely. (Martin Riesebrodt The Immanent Frame 2011-12-05)

This book could really be regarded as Robert Bellah’s “State of the Species” address, after a life of scholarship and reflection. It is about everything: the nature of knowledge and meaning, and the history of our deepest yearnings and practices, as expressed in our religions. Posterity will decide whether he has succeeded, but the effort is magnificent in its own right. We all speak of doing difficult, disciplined, interdisciplinary thinking. Well, folks, this is what it looks like, down on the ground. (Merlin Donald The Immanent Frame 2011-12-05)

Robert Bellah’s magnum opus does far more than just satisfy. It provides a transformative and thrillingly interdisciplinary account of the evolution of religion itself…So expert and simultaneously readable is Religion in Human Evolution–a model of academic writing–that it effectively banishes the paltry efforts of Daniel Dennett and Pascal Boyer and Robert Wright. (Scott Stephens Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s Religion and Ethics blog 2012-02-10)

Bellah’s reexamination of his own classic theory of religious evolution provides a treasure-chest of rich detail and sociological insight. The evolutionary story is not linear but full of twists and variations. The human capacity for religion begins in the earliest ritual gatherings involving emotion, music and dance, producing collective effervescence and shared narratives that give meaning to the utilitarian world. But ritual entwines with power and stratification, as chiefs vie with each other over the sheer length, expense, and impressiveness of ritual. Archaic kingdoms take a sinister turn with terroristic rituals such as human sacrifices exalting the power of god and ruler simultaneously. As societies become more complex and rulers acquire organization that relies more on administration and taxation than on sheer impressiveness and terror, religions move towards the axial breakthrough into more abstract, universal and self-reflexive concepts, elevating the religious sphere above worldly goods and power. Above all, the religions of the breakthrough become ethicized, turning against cruelty and inequality and creating the ideals that eventually will become those of more just and humane societies. Bellah deftly examines the major historical texts and weighs contemporary scholarship in presenting his encompassing vision. (Randall Collins, University of Pennsylvania)

The new magnum opus of a great contemporary sociologist…Bellah is one of those rare social scientists who not only studies the origins of our religions but who also participates in an active Christian congregation in his University of California neighborhood. Because he appropriates so wide a range of contemporary evolutionary sciences, in the 600 pages of this book a reader is likely to experience a great depth of gratitude for our debts as humans to our ancient lineages–to all the beings who are responsible for the explosion of our fellow species on our earth…If we read this book, adherents of every modern religion–especially Jews, Christians, and Muslims–will find vast new reasons for gratitude for our ancestors human and extra-human. We meet in these pages eloquent summaries of how the evolution of the human mind may be the greatest mystery of all. (Donald Shriver Tikkun 2012-04-30)

Insightful and magisterial, it is the crowning achievement of a brilliant scholar who is sympathetic to religion and deeply attuned to the problems of modernity…[Bellah] draws on scientific explanations and historical facts to present and support a new multistranded theory of religion, one that places the human pursuit of meaning squarely in the context of our social history, which in turn rests in the context of our biological and cosmological evolution. (Linda Heuman Tricycle 2012-06-01)

Religion in Human Evolution is an immense work; it would merit description as the achievement of a lifetime, were it not actually Bellah’s second such achievement…What does it amount to? Quite a lot, actually: effectively, a history of the world up to about 2,000 years ago. The book has a James Michener-esque scope, proceeding effectively from the Big Bang forward. The only comparisons I can come up with are Hegel’s magisterial but fragmentary notes for his Lectures on the Philosophy of Religions, or Weber’s monumental works on the Sociology of World Religions (which got through China and India and ancient Israel, but no further). Bellah is definitely playing major league sociology…Both in the scale of its ambition, and in the degree to which that ambition is realized, this is a book that will outlast its critics…Each moment in his account invites further reflection, deeper immersion in the realities under study, a richer, more empathetic comprehension of what it is like to be these people. For all these reasons, I hope that future work in evolutionary theory and religion will learn from Bellah’s example. (Charles Mathewes American Interest 2012-07-01)

Haïti! Haïti! : un roman d’Anthony Phelps et de Gary Klang écrit à deux mains

Originally posted on Parole En Archipel | Pour le partage du beau et du vrai:

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Anthony Phelps et Gary Klang, écrivains haïtiens

Difficile de classer ce roman dans le genre policier ou dans celui du thriller même si certains éléments en font bien partie. Il y a le crime comme point de départ : un massacre d’innocents par les tontons macoutes cagoulés dans la ville de Jérémie. La date n’est pas donnée mais fait très certainement référence aux massacres de populations civiles ordonnées par le dictateur François Duvalier en été 1964 en représailles à une tentative de renversement de son régime.

Il existe bien une quête : Philippe Rivière, un justicier plutôt solitaire, aidé clandestinement par un mouvement d’opposition, se fait passer pour un journaliste. Il mène l’enquête afin de découvrir les commanditaires, le mobile, et surtout le nom des auteurs de ces crimes car parmi les victimes se trouve son cousin qu’il chérissait comme un frère. La justice que désire infliger Rivière s’appelle purement et simplement…

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Une autre vision sur Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Originally posted on Parole En Archipel | Pour le partage du beau et du vrai:

Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Le Fondateur d'Haïti | Photo par Ernst Louis Copyright © 2007

Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Le Fondateur d’Haïti | Photo par Ernst Louis Copyright © 2007

Les Vaincus n’écriront jamais l’histoire des vainqueurs. S’ils le font, c’est d’une manière hideuse, tronquée et falsifiée, pour nous montrer qu’ils ont toujours le dernier mot. Ils ont mis en avant Toussaint Louverture captif au fort de Joux où la France a décidé de son sort.

Ils l’ont surnommé le Spartacus noir, avec raison, puisque Rome a eu la tête de Spartacus, comme Napoléon et la France ont eu celle Toussaint Louverture. Ce que la France n’avait pas compris, c’est que les racines étaient profondes et nombreuses. Pour une fois regardons l’histoire avec nos propres yeux et non pas avec ceux du colon. ExempleLe bon vieux roi Dagobert a mis sa culotte à l’enverson ne portait pas de culottes au VII° siècle, ces dernières étant apparues vers le XVI° siècle, soit près…

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Le Vodou Haïtien: Origine et croyances

Originally posted on Parole En Archipel | Pour le partage du beau et du vrai:

Entretien avec l’Ati Max Beauvoir, hougan, chimiste de formation et chef suprême du vodou en Haïti qui présente “Lapriyè Ginen” et “Le Grand Recueil Sacré, ou Répertoire des chansons du vodou haïtien” à « Kiskeya, l’île mystérieuse », une émission hebdomadaire culturelle animée par Marie-Alice Théard depuis juin 2011 sur Canal Bleu (chaînes 38 et 89) en Haïti.

Le Vodou Haïtien: Origine et croyances

HAITI REFERENCE – Le mot “Vodou” vient du language parlé par les communautés Fon du Dahomey. Né dans la clandestinité et, dans sa prime enfance, religion des esclaves noirs importés d’Afrique, le vodou intégra des éléments des religions africaines avec le culte des saints dans la religion catholique.

Le vodou joua un rôle primordial dans le combat quotidien que menait l’esclave transplanté d’Afrique pour conserver non seulement sa santé mentale dans un système, à tous les égards, déshumanisant, mais aussi et surtout pour rester connecter avec sa terre…

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Lettre de Jacques Stéphen Alexis à François Duvalier

Originally posted on Parole En Archipel | Pour le partage du beau et du vrai:

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Jacques Stéphen Alexis, né le 22 avril 1922 aux Gonaïves (Haïti)

Pour l’histoire : Nous avons retranscrit en bonne et due forme, la lettre mémorable de l’écrivain haïtien Jacques Stephen Alexis adressée au dictateur François Duvalier, un an avant d’être assassiné par ce dernier en 1961. Le célèbre auteur de “Compère Général Soleil” (Première parution en 1955 – Collection L’Imaginaire (n° 91), Éd. Gallimard) s’inquiétait du resserrement de l’étau autour de sa personne tout en renvoyant au futur Président à vie, à travers un diagnostic subtil et sarcastique, l’image hideuse de son régime autoritaire. L’héritier du régime des Duvalier, Jean-Claude Duvalier a été chassé du pouvoir en 1986 par une révolte populaire. Il est rentré à Haïti en janvier 2011 après 25 ans d’exil en France. Aujourd’hui l’ancien dictateur, responsable de tant de malheurs d’Haïti, vit en toute impunité au pays aux yeux des victimes de son régime. Il est pourtant très…

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